5 Steps to Proper Gun Cleaning for Shotguns
The steps to properly clean your shotgun depend on whether you are doing a field stripping or complete disassembly. We’ll cover basic field stripping in this article. Due to the variety of shotguns, complete disassembly of the firearm aren’t within the scope of this article.
1. Completely Unload the Shotgun
This is the most crucial step in the entire cleaning process. To ensure the safety of yourself and those around you, you must remove your magazine (if equipped) and any ammunition that may be loaded within the firearm including in internal magazines. Only do this while pointing the firearm in a safe direction. Make sure you do a thorough check, visually (look) and tactilely (feel). Never rely on your firearm’s safety because accidents can and do happen.
2. Cleaning the Shotgun
For some shotguns you’ll need to perform a partial take-down of the firearm, including removing the barrel, for cleaning purposes. Check with the manufacturer’s instruction manual for details. Take care to watch for springs or other small parts and set them inside a cup, can lid or other container to keep them from getting lost.
Using a cleaning tool, such as a utility brush or cleaning swabs, and remove any loose particles that may be found within the action, bolt, receiver, frame and chamber. For field guns with widespread mud/debris, use a cleaner/degreaser spray. Heavy fouling can be removed with a light application of cleaner and allowing it to sit for a few minutes prior to brushing. Remove cleaned fouling with a wipe or cloth.
Moving onto the barrel, you’ll want to apply some bore cleaner on a cleaning patch and using a cleaning rod with a jag, brush or patch holder tip run the patch through your barrel. A good way to tell how clean your firearm is getting is to monitor the amount of debris or residue that comes off as you swipe your patch through it. For plastic wad fouling, repeated applications of bore cleaner and scrubbing with a bronze brush may be needed. If using a brush tip, run it completely through the barrel before reversing to make sure it doesn’t get stuck. Follow up your bore cleaner soaked patch with several dry ones to make sure you’ve left your barrel clean and dry.
3. Apply Lubrication Where Necessary
Once you’ve completely cleaned your action, bolt, and receiver, you’ll want to properly oil/lubricate the moving parts of your firearm. This will depend on the type of firearm you’re cleaning and recommended lubrication per the manufacturer. In most cases, you’ll want to lubricate:
- Bearing surfaces (metal-on-metal, bolt lugs, rails, guides)
Do not apply lubricants to the inside of the barrel or chamber except for long-term storage. This can lead to high pressures when shooting and the potential for catastrophic (BOOM) failure. Lubricant on ammunition can lead to misfires or squibs.
One common myth is that more is better when it comes to lubrication of your firearm. You want to adequately lubricate where needed, but too much can lead to excessive residues, which can lead to malfunctions and handling issues (slippery). Lubricating cloths are an excellent tool because they help control the amount of oil/lubrication being used in any given area of your gun.
Look at worn metal areas on bearing surfaces such as your action bars (on a pump action), hinge (on break action) and bolt lugs. On a well-used firearm you’ll see bare metal through the finish in some places. That’s not necessarily a problem as it means your firearm is adjusting itself to work more efficiently. Worn areas do require light lubrication.
4. Wipe Down All Components
After you’ve cleaned and lubricated your firearm, wipe it down with a clean, dry cloth. This removes residue and oils/moisture from fingerprints that you may have missed in steps two and three. Once you’re done wiping down all components, you can use wax-treated gun cloths to help polish and protect your firearm. A quick wipe and polish of any wooden furniture on your shotgun is also a recommendation.
5. Reassemble and Check for Any Irregularities
Once everything is cleaned, and wiped down, it’s time to start reassembling your shotgun. During this process, you want to carefully inspect each piece as you put it together and make a note of any damage, irregularities, or excessive wear or play (movement). Occasional dents or scratches happen. Other damage not only hurts the value of your firearm but can lead to potential safety concerns. Should you find anything questionable in your inspection, we highly recommend you take it to a local firearms shop or competent gunsmith. They’ll do a closer inspection and advise you on how to move forward to ensure continued safety and reliability.
For long term storage of firearms, you can use this step to apply preservative oils and then utilize a storage system.
Remember to wipe down your hands and work surfaces after firearm cleaning with a cleaning cloth to remove lead and other heavy metal residues.